Thoracic surgery is a surgical specialty that encompasses the operative, pre-operative, post-operative, and surgical critical care of patients with acquired and congenital pathologic conditions within the chest. Included are the surgical repair of congenital and acquired conditions of the heart, including the pericardium, coronary arteries, valves, great vessels, and myocardium. In addition to operations and management of diseases of the thoracic and thoracoabdominal aorta, the scope of practice in thoracic surgery includes the evaluation of vascular disease, and the exposure, cannulation, reconstruction, and treatment of the carotid, brachiocephalic, axillary, iliac, and femoral vessels. It also includes pathologic conditions of the lung/trachea/bronchi, esophagus/foregut and chest wall, the mediastinum, the diaphragm, and the pericardium. Management of the airway and injuries to the chest are also within the scope of the specialty.